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Author Wieczorek, Agnieszka
Affiliation Gdynia Maritime University 81/87 Morska St., 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
E-mail wieczorek_agnieszka@wp.pl
Author Nanowski, Dariusz
Affiliation Navigator Gas 15 Wendy St., 81-341 Gdynia, Poland
E-mail dariusz.nanowski@navigatorgas.com
ISSN printed 1733-8670
URI https://repository.scientific-journals.eu/handle/123456789/2594
Abstract Ethylene is one of the basic raw materials of the petrochemical industry that is used to produce plastics. One of the largest producers of this compound is the USA, and a substantial increase in the demand for ethylene has also been recently observed in the Middle East, the Far East, and China. This requires the transport of this cargo by sea. Ethylene carriers are a type of LPG ships and are equipped with a cascade cycle that uses propylene or refrigerant R404A as a coolant medium. These vessels have been designed to withstand the minimum temperature of ethylene of –104°C for fully-cooled cargo. A mixture of ethylene and air (from concentrations of 2.75–2.6%) becomes explosive during heating under elevated pressures. Hence, it is necessary to form an inert atmosphere in the tanks using mostly nitrogen before the ethylene cargo is loaded. The process of aerating, inerting, gassing-up, and cooling cargo tanks and cargo is constantly repeated during the operation of LPG carriers. Due to the large amounts of ethylene lost during gassing-up, which results in significant financial losses and disruptions in cargo compressors during the cooling of the tanks and cargo, this operation is the most problematic of all. In this article, a solution is proposed for performing the gassing-up procedure which prevents excessive ethylene loss.
Pages 136-140
Publisher Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie
Keywords LPG carrier
Keywords ethylene
Keywords Nitrogen
Keywords gassing-up
Keywords gas mixing
Keywords gas composition
Title An experimental gassing-up operation on an ethylene carrier using two cascades with two tanks each
References
  1. McGuire and White (2000) Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals. 3th Edition. London: Witherby & Co Ltd.
  2. Nanowski, D. (2016) The influence of incondensible gases on the refrigeration capacity of the reliquefaction plant during ethylene carriage by sea. Journal of KONES 23, 3, pp. 359–364.
  3. NGC (2002) Transportation of Condensed Gases by Sea, Correspondence Course. NGC Norwegian Gas Carriers, Norway.
  4. PRS (2001) Międzynarodowy Kodeks Budowy i Wyposażenia Statków Przewożących Skroplone Gazy Luzem. Gdańsk: Polski Rejestr Statków.
  5. SIGTTO (2016) Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals (LGHP4). 4th Edition. London: Witherby Publishing Group Ltd.
  6. Wieczorek, A. (2017) The problem of insufficiently optimal gassing-up operation carrying after tanks inerting with reference to ethylene carriers, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, Scientific Journal of Gdynia Maritime University 100, pp. 179–186.
  7. Wieczorek, A. (2018) Alternative solutions of optimalisation the gassing-up operation after tanks inerting of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and membrane techniques. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, Scientific Journal of Gdynia Maritime University 105, pp. 136–144.
  8. Wieczorek, A. & Giernalczyk, M. (2018) Optimization of gassing-up operation based on comparative analysis of two twin ethylene carriers. Journal of KONES 25, 1, pp. 441–446, 2018.
  9. Włodarski, J.K. (Ed.) (1993) Bezpieczeństwo Transportu Gazów Skroplonych Na Zbiornikowcach. Poradnik dla oficerów statków morskich. Gdynia: Studium Doskonalenia Kadr S.C Wyższej Szkoły Morskiej.
ISSN on-line 2392-0378
Language English
Funding No data
Figures 2
Tables 2
DOI 10.17402/409
Published 2020-03-31
Accepted 2020-03-09
Recieved 2020-02-04


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