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Browsing by Author Gralak, Rafał: 61 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin

  • Gucma, Stanisław; Gralak, Rafał; Muczyński, Bartosz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The identification of navigational risks of accidents in fairways is a basic principle for the construction or modernization of waterways in restricted waters and when the conditions of safe operation change. The estimation of navigational risk requires the evaluation of the consequences of accidents occurring in fairways: grounding, impact against a vertical shore, port/offshore structure or moored ship. When determining the consequences of these accidents, it is necessary to know the emergency maneuvering area and the speed of the ship at the time of the accident. The method of ship movement simulation in real time was used to determine the parameters of emergency maneuvering areas and the speed of vessels during the maneuvers. The results of the simulation experiment include full form vessels (bulk carriers, tankers) with a capacity ranging from 5,000 DWT to 100,000 DWT. The presented results of simulation tests enabled the evaluation of probability and consequences of ships’ accidents in fairways resulting from technical failures of ships’ steering equipment, allowing to assess the navigational risk for ships sailing through different types of fairways (approach channels, port entrances and inner port fairways).

Other publications

  • Schoeneich, Marta; Puszcz, Agnieszka; Gucma, Lucjan; Jankowski, Stefan; Artyszuk, Jarosław; Duczkowski, Marek; Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    In this article an integrated system for dynamic under keel clearance (UKC) assessment is presented. The system was created to improved navigation safety and economic effectiveness in Polish ports. In this paper principle of model operations and utilization with modern, available mobile devices in integration with wireless data transmission technology was introduce
  • Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2010)
    The brand new technologies more frequently revolutionize the conservative fields of the navigation, such as ECDIS for instance. The term of “E-Navigation” in the different forms is omnipresent in the major parts of navigation, tried to substitute old-fashion technologies. The pilotage service is one of them, remains immutable in its novelty and stays conservative from many years. The author focused on the technical aspects of the system named Remote Pilotage System, as an aid to the in-shore and sea piloting methods. The content of this article is focused on the analysis of methods for the voice-way information communication to the navigator and the different interface figuration for the pilot. The described researches are the part of holistic method of navigational information communication analysis for the Remote Pilotage System Interface
  • Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The main task carried out by the Pilot Navigation and Docking System is to provide the navigation information for the pilot or captain, during the vessel berthing. The form of presentation of such information may be implemented using various methods. The form of lighting arrays located on the quay is the least technical complicated method to present the navigational parameters of manoeuvring vessel. Much more advanced way of communication is the delivery of the necessary data on the manoeuvring vessel’s bridge, using the selected wireless data transmission technology. The visualization is done via dedicated device’s screen or commercial laptop, tablet, smartphone or mobile phone. The remainder of this article describes the construction, specifications and algorithm of wireless data segment intended for the commonly used mobile devices
  • Sokołowska, Sylwia; Marcjan, Krzysztof; Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    This paper presents simulation analysis of vessels approaching and vessels departuring from the port of Szczecin and Police focusing on the encounters between two vessels. The analysis parameters such as length and draft were examined. Particular attention was paid to the restricted sections of the seaway between Zalew Szczeciński and Basen G\'orniczy. The results of these simulation trials and the resulting analysis can be helpful while updating port regulations and for the assessment of the traffic density and the capacity of the waterway.
  • Gralak, Rafał; Muczyński, Bartosz; Terczyński, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents the assumptions for the concept of a full mission ship’s bridge simulator prototype using innovative augmented virtuality technology. A description of a possible development process is provided as well as two potential applications in the field of marine simulation: operator motion tracking techniques, MoCap, which entails interacting with the environment and generating of synthetic images via HUD; and implementation of the latest technology, data gathering and analysis methods, which would replace current visualization methods and equipment used in maritime simulators.
  • Artyszuk, Jarosław; Gralak, Rafał; Gucma, Maciej; Gucma, Stanisław; Ślączka, Wojciech; Zalewski, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the development of a new simulation method to optimize bends in marine waterways. This method, using results of empirical research and simulation methods, would allow accurate determination of safe manoeuvring areas. The method was used at the stage of detailed design of parameters of the, which is undergoing modernization, to determine the optimum parameters of horizontal curves of the fairway. The study was conducted on the type of manoeuvring simulator called Polaris Kongsberg and attended by pilots from the Szczecin–Swinoujscie Pilot Station. Based on the studies carried out, the maximum safe ship length was determined for the redesigned waterway and the conditions for their safe operation. The maximum lengths of these ships are as follows: cruise Lc = 260 m, container Lc = 240 m and a bulk carrier Lc = 220 m.
  • Drwięga, Kinga; Gucma, Lucjan; Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a methodology for determining the components related to the heel of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers, excluding the heel of the vessel due to waves. The described method was applied to the description of under keel clearance of vessels approaching the outer port of Świnoujście. The method includes the determination of heel components caused by: draught reading errors, wind, current, tugboats and vessel maneuvers. Determination of the last component was carried out using a 2-stage method. In the first stage, simulation methods were used to identify the parameters of ship movement. In the second stage, the maximum heel of LNG carriers was calculated by analytical methods.
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Gralak, Rafał; Przywarty, Marcin; Muczyński, Bartosz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents an original two-stage simulation method for the optimization of seaport parameters. Presentation of the method is based on example of parameter optimization of the outer container port in Świnoujście. Presented method uses two limitations of the objective function related to safety of manoeuvring and mooring of ships. It consist of two stages, first one is carried out for the parameters defined in the preliminary stage of design. On the basis of results from this stage, layout and other parameters of port waterways can be adjusted to satisfy assumed safety criteria. The second stage uses the parameters established in the first stage. It allows for small adjustments which will not change the safety of manoeuvring. The result of second stage is optimal parameters of the examined port waterways.
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Artyszuk, Jarosław; Gralak, Rafał; Kowalski, Adam (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The presented method for defining the conditions of safe operation of marine ferries in ferry terminals allows verification of shipowner ferry designs. In the first stage of this method, simulations are used to determine the allowable wind speed. The second stage comprises simulations of ferry berthing aimed at defining safe manoeuvring areas, the energy of berthing impact and propeller stream speeds at allowable wind speeds. The method was used in the design of a 228 m long hybrid ferry.
  • Gucma, Lucjan; Gralak, Rafał; Artyszuk, Jarosław; Boć, Renata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The increasing sizes of ships determine the interest in modifying the already existing solutions. Simulation models allow us to analyse the possible modernisation options. The article presents analysis results for the width of the fairway to Ystad, marked with buoys with respect to navigation safety. After a thorough analysis, taking into account the safety of navigation, further possibilities of development have been determined. Study results are aimed at designing new solutions in case of modernization of the approach channel to Ystad.
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Gucma, Maciej; Gralak, Rafał; Przywarty, Marcin; Muczyński, Bartosz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article describes the methodology to design a universal berth for LNG discharge from tankers with a wide cargo capacity range of 500 m3 to 220,000 m3. Based on a waterway optimization simulation, the methodology has been used to determine parameters of the designed universal cargo handling berth located in the port of Świnoujście.
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Gucma, Maciej; Gralak, Rafał; Bilewski, Mateusz; Muczyński, Bartosz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents a simulation method for determining the minimum safe pull of tugs assisting in port manoeuvres. The method can be used to determine the relationship between the minimum safe pull, understood as the tension on the line, of the assisting tugs and the overall length, cargo capacity or net capacity of ships manoeuvring in a given port under allowable hydrometeorological conditions. The method was verified through simulated tests of gas tankers’ entry, turning and berthing at the LNG terminal of Świnoujście

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