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  • Dziechciarz, Mateusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Seaports are important points in international supply chains. As hubs for several transport sectors, seaports are an essential element of transport corridors. Over the years, the types of cargo moving through the ports in Szczecin and Świnoujście have changed significantly. In the last two decades, the largest transhipments were typically coal, grain and other bulk cargoes; this is reflected in the share of total hinterland shipments transported by different transport methods. In 2005, more than 2/3 of the cargoes delivered to and from the ports of Szczecin and Świnoujście were transported by rail. Rail transport continued to account for the leading share of hinterland transport until 2011, when road transport started to dominate (46.3% of cargo carried by rail and 47.50% by trucks). This is indicative of a correlation between the type of cargo and its mode of hinterland transport. With an increase in general cargo transhipments, the share of shipments travelling to and from the ports by road transport has increased. In turn, the fall in coal shipments is reflected in rail transport’s share decreasing. In 2005, 3.8% of coal was transported by roads and 80% by rail. In the following years, despite the decrease in the share of global transhipments accounted for by coal, road transport’s use for coal transport increased. This indicates that the type of cargo is not the only factor influencing the relative contributions of different modes of transport to hinterland travel.
  • (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    With regards to safety, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) regularly issue regulations and technical standards for the design and construction of ships in order to safeguard the crew and people on board. In light of these regulations, three issues concerning the properties of a bulk carrier are investigated. Initially the floodability of a bulk carrier is researched to investigate the largest possible volumes of compartments which can be flooded without causing a bulk carrier to capsize. The results are determined by means of a marine design software, Maxsurf Enterprise.
  • Łapko, Aleksandra; Hącia, Ewa (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article aims to present the results of the analysis of selected aspects of transport accessibility (from the land and water) of two coastal areas situated on the Baltic coast of the Western Pomeranian region. It was assumed that transport accessibility affects the number of tourists visiting the selected areas – Kołobrzeg County (mainly the city of Kołobrzeg) and Świnoujście. The analysis was based on econometric modeling. For the timescale investigated (1995–2016), linear and parabolic trends were estimated and, as a result of their extrapolation, tourism forecasts in both coastal areas were estimated up to the year 2020. Statistical data for the years 1995–2016 was collected by the Central Statistical Office of Poland. In addition, literature and online resource research was conducted.
  • Herbin, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Controlling the upper limb with force feedback requires the continuous measurement of multiple values, so it is necessary to use a specific measuring system. The position of the joints and the torque produced by the drives are the basic feedbacks necessary for control. Measurement of the joint positions does not cause complications, while measurement of the driving torque is much more complex. This article describes the methods of implementing an exoskeleton drive system through a closed loop conduit system based on Bowden cables, and the integration of a torque sensor within the wheel of the exoskeleton. The integration of the sensor within a mechanical part of the construction of the exoskeleton is the main advantage of the developed sensor because it does not affect the dynamics of the exoskeleton. This article presents the process of designing, calibrating and validating the proposed link wheel torque sensor.
  • Korostil, Jerzy (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A method of predicting the influence random events on the critical functionality of an object is discussed. Research is performed regarding the possibility of extending a prediction model to a prediction system by functionally uniting this model with additional models or recognizing the type of influence of a random event on a complex technical object. The proposed solution is importatnt because executing a prediction system instead of a prediction model allows one to detect critical situations that, when influencing technical objects, can result in the catastrophic loss of functionality of the corresponding objects.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ocean mining systems that incorporate a single or double lift pipe are two methods used to obtain polimetallic nodules from the seabed. The pipe must be equipped with main cables and flexible pipe attached to the mining vehicle collecting nodules. While mining, the pipes in the vertical configuration are moving along with the ship above. They are subjected to currents in the water column. Such current-induced hydrodynamic drag results in a vertical deflection, which is dependent – among other factors such as varying current velocity at points along the length of the pipe. The present paper presents results of computer simulations using commercial CFD software to model the hydrodynamic forces acting on the vertical pipe of ocean mining systems. The results present the influence of the water flow direction in relation to the lift pipe on the hydrodynamic force and torsional moment acting upon the pipe.
  • Twardochleb, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In the modern economy, effective teamwork is essential in the majority of industries. Teams of specialists such as crewmen and software developers need to be able to work together properly. The appropriate selection of team specialists according to their soft competencies results in synergies, and streamlines tasks. This paper presents the results of studies aimed at assessing the impact of team role configurations on overall team performance.
  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is my great pleasure to present to the new issue 50 (122) of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime Academy in Szczecin. This publication contains the most recent research results on marine engineering, energy, navigation and transport engineering. The introductory article in this issue has been prepared by Dr Floris Goerlandt, a researcher from Aalto University, Helsinki. It focusses on modelling oil spill scenarios from tanker collision accidents in the Northern Baltic Sea. This publication has been financed from the funds for activities of promoting science: grant No. 790/P-DUN/2016 of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. It is my expectation that this material will be attractive to all readers interested in the issues of security in marine transport and minimising the results of ecological disasters. The Marine Technology and Innovation section contains papers on infrared cameras used in detecting sources of fire on ships, estimating oil consumption based on ship service parameters in real weather conditions, and on the effect of the angle of attack on the generated water wave propagation. The Navigation oriented section includes papers on the concepts of route prediction for a person drifting in water, analyses of vessels traffic flow on a waterway bend as well as radiocommunication and detection of spoofing using differential GNSS. The Transportation Engineering section contains articles addressing inland transport, operation of a sea port and vehicle safety. To access the electronic version of the current issue or archival volumes, please visit our website http://scientific-journals.eu/. You will also be able to access all papers published by the Scientific Journals from 1973. The digitalisation and sharing of archival issues has been financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education from the fund (above) for activities associated with the promotion of science. I strongly encourage and invite authors to submit their work and readers to forward their comments to the journal.
  • Goerlandt, Floris (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Oil spills from maritime activities can lead to very extensive damage to the marine environment and disrupt maritime ecosystem services. Shipping is an important activity in the Northern Baltic Sea, and with the complex and dynamic ice conditions present in this sea area, navigational accidents occur rather frequently. Recent risk analysis results indicate those oil spills are particularly likely in the event of collisions. In Finnish sea areas, the current wintertime response preparedness is designed to a level of 5000 tonnes of oil, whereas a state-of-the-art risk analysis conservatively estimates that spills up to 15000 tonnes are possible. Hence, there is a need to more accurately estimate oil spill scenarios in the Northern Baltic Sea, to assist the relevant authorities in planning the response fleet organization and its operations. An issue that has not received prior consideration in maritime waterway oil spill analysis is the dynamics of the oil outflow, i.e. how the oil outflow extent depends on time. Hence, this paper focuses on time-dependent oil spill scenarios from collision accidents possibly occurring to tankers operating in the Northern Baltic Sea. To estimate these, a Bayesian Network model is developed, integrating information about designs of typical tankers operating in this area, information about possible damage scenarios in collision accidents, and a state-of-the-art time-domain oil outflow model. The resulting model efficiently provides information about the possible amounts of oil spilled in the sea in different periods of time, thus contributing to enhanced oil spill risk assessment and response preparedness planning.
  • Bistrović, Miroslav; Ristov, Pančo; Komorčec, Domagoj (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the key benefits of using thermal imaging is the ability to predict possible fire hazards due to increases in temperature in controlled areas in a particular marine facility or system. This study proposes the possibility of applying new electronic and computer technology as part of a ship’s fire detection system, such as the use of computer vision, using existing marine CCTV systems and installing thermal imaging IR cameras on the same system. It also proposes communication between the CCTV system and the fire detection and central alarm system of a ship. In addition to visual analysis of certain areas on board the ship and the related facilities inside it, with the addition of certain software applications into the existing CCTV system, the system itself becomes a fire alarm system, with the potential to forecast and send early warnings to the ship’s central fire alarm system in real time, thereby contributing to improved safety with regards to various areas, equipment, the ship as a whole, cargo and human lives.
  • Cepowski, Tomasz; Drozd, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper deals with fuel consumption estimations relating to container ships on the basis of ship service and wave parameters. Data, on which to base estimations, was measured and recorded from a container ship during 96 months at sea. Approximating functions were calculated by the use of curve fitting techniques and regression methods, utilizing newly developed software named ndCurveMaster. The approximation function presented in this paper could have practical application for the estimation of container ship fuel consumption, while considering weather routing. In addition the study clearly shows the relationship between the fuel consumption of a container ship and the number of months since its last docking. These results may form the basis for further research in this direction.
  • Javanmardi, Mohammadreza; Binns, Jonathan; Izham, Muhammad Iqbal Che; Rafieshahraki, Jalal (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The presented work is an experimental investigation into the waves generated by a pressure source moving in a straight channel. Wave fields generated by the moving pressure source are described and the effects of angle of attack on the generated wave height, surfable wave quality, drag and vertical forces are presented. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the angle of attack and the generated wave height across the towing tank width and the surfable wave quality. The investigations were conducted at the Australian Maritime College towing tank on a wavedozer at four different attack angles at various speeds. Three wave probes were installed across the channel to record the generated wave heights. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that smaller angles of attack produced higher quality surfable waves compared to larger angles of attack, while the height of the generated wave has a direct relationship with the angle of attack. By comparing the forces for different models, it was concluded that the pressure source with the lowest angle of attack has the minimum drag but maximum displacement.
  • Kijewska, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this paper, the route prediction for a person in water was performed on the basis of a developed graph algorithm. This person drifted in water under the influence of surface currents and wind. The total drift route for the person in water was established as the route in a weighted directed graph. Vertices of this graph correspond to given points within a given basin. Additionally, the graph’s edges show possible directions of the overall human drift. The weight of the given edge describes the difference between the gradient of the edge and the total drift direction calculated on the basis of surface current field data and wind field data. An application has been created on the basis of a given algorithm which might be used to support the search for survivors in coastal areas (e.g. port basins, basins adjacent to the port, bays and sea areas) for which hydrodynamic models reliably reflect local phenomena.
  • Mąka, Marcin; Majzner, Piotr; Lisaj, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the structure of a model of the allocation of radiocommunication events at coastal radio stations, land-based satellite stations and on vessels in sea area A3. The propagation of radio waves in the HF band has been analyzed to examine the range of various radio stations and their capabilities of establishing communication between each other. We also present methods of modeling and displaying the deployment of individual stations, of presenting radiocommunication events as a function of time using time diagrams, as well as the manner of the chronological presentation of radiocommunication events and related decisions. It has been shown that there is a relationship between the effectiveness of communication and propagation conditions that is strongly dependent on the time-of-day. We present the need to develop a decision support system for the radio operator on the bridge.
  • Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the main problems in modern navigation of both manned and unmanned transport systems is that of transport safety. Differential GNSS technology has been used to improve the accuracy of transport positioning, in which position is calculated relative to a fixed reference station with a known position XYZ. Unfortunately, GNSS is vulnerable to malicious intrusion. GNSS signals and/or correction signals from the reference station can be spoofed by false signals, and special receivers have been used to provide defenses against such attacks. But how can the roving receiver (i.e. the user) be sure that the information they receive is authentic? Spoofing is the transmission of a matched-GNSS-signal-structure and/or signals to a reference station in order to cause interference and attempt to commandeer the tracking loops of a victim receiver, thereby allowing manipulation of the receiver’s timing or navigation solution. A spoofer can transmit its counterfeit signals from a stand-off distance of several hundred meters, or it can be co-located with its victim. In this article we consider the principles of spoofing detection using Differential GNSS, in which a correction signal from the reference station is used for the detection of spoofing

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