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  • Vidmar, Peter; Perkovic, Marko (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the overall risk management state for the crude oil tanker fleet, evidenced by EMSA and other international marine organisations. Based on historical statistical data related to fleet size, accident reports, amount of oil spilled on the sea and the economic value of the crude oil transport business, the risk acceptance criteria are evaluated. The Formal Safety Assessment is further used for a systematic assessment of risk, where potential hazards are analysed with structured methods (HAZID) and represented in event trees. The paper studies three risks: PLL (potential loss of lives), PLC (potential loss of containment) and PLP (potential loss of property). A general approach is presented and discussed with a particular focus on the evolution of risk acceptance in recent decades and evaluations of risk F-N curves for different tanker sizes.
  • Kasyk, Lech; Kijewska, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Vessel passage speed is one of the parameters describing the vessel traffic stream on a selected waterway. Knowing the probability distribution of vessel passage speeds is essential for modeling vessel traffic streams on a waterway. This article undertakes probabilistic modeling for vessel speeds in restricted areas, where the distribution of the vessel passage time of the waterway section is known. The probabilistic procedure of the inverse random variable is used. Four different cases are considered. First, the probabilistic distribution of the vessel passage speed is given, where the vessel passage time is described by the normal distribution in certain restricted areas. The next three cases present the probabilistic distribution of vessel passage speeds on the Szczecin–Świnoujście fairway, where the vessel passage time is described by the extreme value distribution, the Frèchet distribution and the Weibull distribution.
  • Łącki, Mirosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The goal of research presented in this article is to check if a neuroevolutionary method with direct encoding is able to be a part of autopilot of the vessel. One of the important tasks of vessel autopilots is to keep a course as straight as possible or to bring the ship back on the route as efficiently as possible. In this paper, the adaptive neuroevolutionary autopilot is described and tested on a simulation model of a ferry. Neuroevolution is a combination of two different but related fields of artificial machine learning: evolution and neural networks. The combined method is very flexible and can be applied to other ship control tasks. The results of computer simulation of the neuroevolutionary course-keeping system have been included.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz; Wielgosz, Mirosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Port approaches are high-traffic areas with limited manoeuvring space. Navigation in such areas requires the analysis of large amounts of information, which can impede decision processes. One solution may be the development of decision support systems dedicated to these areas. This paper presents an attempt to build a navigation decision support system operable in the approach area leading to the port of Świnoujście (Poland), with ship domain implemented as a safety criterion. Assumptions for a decision support system to be used by sea-going vessels in port approach areas are formulated and discussed. Specific features of these areas, such as traffic density, bathymetry, available manoeuvring space and legal limitations are taken into account. The source and scope of information available to the ship have been analysed. The scope of decision support has been defined. A ship domain has been proposed as a safety criterion. Approach areas leading to the port of Świnoujście have been investigated on the basis of real Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Vessel movement processes in the chosen area were analysed. Ship domains in various parts of the area were determined. The first results concerning criteria for navigational safety assessment are presented. The conducted studies showed significant differences in the size of domains. A case study was performed on a decision support system operable in the approach area leading to Świnoujście.
  • Weintrit, Adam (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Navigational charts are a basic source of information for seafarers. But how accurate and reliable are they? How much trust and confidence can be put in them? Unfortunately, the answer is not so simple; it is far more complicated than merely saying that one chart is accurate and reliable while another is not. However, any seafarer navigating in unfamiliar waters should have the necessary skills. It is a great challenge – some may say an impossibility – to keep the thousands of navigational charts up to date. But exactly how out of date, how inaccurate, are the chart data? Chart users will have a better idea now that the Hydrographic Office is gradually implementing a new chart feature called the Zone of Confidence (ZOC) box which replaces the Source Diagram that is currently in use on large-scale charts. Source Diagrams, and now the improved ZOCs, assist seafarers in assessing hydrographic survey data and the associated levels of risk of navigating in a particular area. According to the new edition of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) specifications, S-4 navigational charts will provide more information on ZOCs. The current paper discusses these new regulations.
  • Aratani, Taro; Sato, Keiji (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In Japan, it is becoming difficult to move freight long distances using only trucks, owing to a shortage in truck drivers. In this context, there is a tendency to also actively utilize ferries or roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships. Intermodal freight transport uses two or more suitable modes of transport from the origin of goods to the destination. In order to promote intermodal freight transport, it is necessary to analyze factors such as the characteristics of transported goods, transportation services and fares, and lot sizes. In this study, we focused on ferries and RORO ships in Japan, and attempted to identify cargoes transported using different modes of transport, based on the net freight flow census. In conclusion, high volumes of “agricultural and fishery products,” “metal machinery,” “chemical industrial,” “light industrial,” and “miscellaneous manufacturing products” can be transported using ferries or RORO ships. Specifically, there is a tendency that products are segregated by transportation mode such as a truck, or a ferry and a RORO ship.
  • Gucma, Lucjan; Gralak, Rafał; Artyszuk, Jarosław; Boć, Renata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The increasing sizes of ships determine the interest in modifying the already existing solutions. Simulation models allow us to analyse the possible modernisation options. The article presents analysis results for the width of the fairway to Ystad, marked with buoys with respect to navigation safety. After a thorough analysis, taking into account the safety of navigation, further possibilities of development have been determined. Study results are aimed at designing new solutions in case of modernization of the approach channel to Ystad.
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Ślączka, Wojciech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The following paper presents an original, universal method of formal safety assessment of ship manoeuvring in sea waterways. The method allows evaluation of a ship’s formal safety assessment on various types of waterways. It may be a basis for standardizing the methods of performing the ‘navigational analyses’ which are required in Poland.
  • Kulbiej, Eric; Rosik, Jakub (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The following paper’s aim is to provide a numerical analysis of well-known man overboard (MOB) manoeuvres undertaken by vessels’ masters’ in critical situations, when a passenger or crew member falls out from a vessel. The simulation, based on a complex hydrodynamical model of a merchant ship, which compares 3 variants of this manoeuvre, shows that the Scharnov turn is the shortest and the quickest one, but the ship finishes the Anderson turn with the lowest velocity. Also, the time of the Williamson turn is short enough, to successfully finish the operation. The duration of MOB manoeuvres is likened to the results of a medical overview, with not only the duration of MOB, but also the time between falling overboard and the beginning of the manoeuvre playing a crucial role in saving a casualty’s life.
  • Buszman, Krystian; Mironiuk, Waldemar (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    There is increasing demand for various types of submersible and floating remotely-operated vehicles which have herein been studied with respect to the threats posed by these kinds of objects. Local physical field disorder analyses have demonstrated the possibility of detecting and classifying objects based on hydroacoustics. Hydroaocoustic analysis results are presented as narrowband and One-Third-Octave spectra of different types of remotely-operated vehicles. Investigations were performed using an underwater measuring system located in very shallow water in a coastal zone characterized by conditions considered as poor for sound propagation.
  • Gudelj, Anita; Boljat, Helena Ukić; Slišković, Merica (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In June 2015 at the University of Split, Faculty of Maritime Studies, the project “Maritime Management for the 21st Century” started. The implementation of this project intended to promote the recognisability of the profession and qualifications in the field of maritime management on the labour market. One of the main objectives was to develop relations with the sector’s major employers through improving the quality of education by developing qualification standards and implementation of the Croatian Qualification Framework by upgrading the Maritime Management curriculum. The transparency and interoperability of data about qualification standards which give a clear definition of learning outcomes are of high importance for both the education sector and the sector’s major employers. This will help graduates to seek jobs matching their qualifications, to change jobs or to move between countries. Also, this solution will meet the demands of employers. In order to achieve this goal, the information about learning outcomes achieved by learners and units needs to be captured, managed and exchanged in common formats. This paper proposes a semantic model of the database for publishing qualification standards and developed categories of learning outcomes for standards in maritime management qualifications.
  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, I am very pleased to introduce the new 53(125) issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. Another year of activity on the publishing market is behind us. In 2017, the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin published as many as 61 scientific papers: 15 in issue 49(121), 13 in issue 50(122), 14 in issue 51(123) and 19 in issue 52(124). The scientific articles published in 2017 were prepared by 105 authors (in total, without repetitions). The percentage of Polish researchers in this group was 77.1% out of 61 publications. Internationally, the greatest contribution was from academics affiliated to Croatian institutes – 6 authors (5.7% of the total number of authors) and Iranian institutes – 7 authors (6.6% of the total number of authors), followed by Germany – 4 authors, Australia – 3 authors, Sweden – 2 authors and Finland and the Netherlands – 1 author each. The current issue of the journal includes recent findings on shipbuilding, water transport, navigation and marine traffic engineering. The introductory paper for this issue entitled “Predicting the shipping market by spreads of timecharter rates” has been prepared by Prof. Tsz Leung Yip – Deputy Director at the C.Y. Tung International Centre for Maritime Studies, lecturer at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and a world-class specialist in logistics and marine transport. This article explores the predictability of spreads between long-term and short-term timecharter rates on spot freight rates. This publication has been financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland from the funds devoted to science-popularising activity: grant No. 790/P-DUN/2016. I hope that this material will prove informative to all readers interested in the issues of marine transport. The Marine Technology and Innovation section includes papers on remote and unmanned navigation of vessels, equipment facilitating SAR actions as well as using state-of-the-art models in reliability analysis and ship design. The section devoted to Navigation and Maritime Transport includes articles on exploitation aspects of using magnetic compasses, ship steering Nomoto model and ship traffic models application. The Transport Engineering section is devoted to inland transportation and marine traffic engineering. Moreover, it discusses the quantitative analysis of the impact of fishing ships’ traffic streams on traffic streams of merchant vessels in the Polish maritime areas. The section entitled Miscellaneous includes articles investigating the analysis of parameters influencing the suitability of the surface unit for search and rescue operation at sea as well as impact of Liquefied Natural Gas terminal on gas distribution and bunkering network in Poland. I would like to take this opportunity to encourage authors from all over the world to publish their research in the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. All readers are invited to visit our website, which now has a more intuitive layout. Under the http://scientific-journals.eu/ address it is possible to access the online version of the current issue as well as archival ones.
  • Yip, Tsz Leung (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper has explored the predictability of spreads between long-term and short-term timecharter rates on spot freight rates. The spread between long-term and short-term rates (or the slope of the yield curve) is often used as a leading economic indicator of economic activities. This concept has been extended to the shipping market in this paper and the probability that the spot freight rate will increase or decrease has been determined. Using the spread between the timecharter rates on long-term and short-term charter contracts, the direction of spot freight rates has been predicted with the dynamic probit model, which is used to estimate the probability of discrete events. Evidence has been drawn from Panamax dry bulk ships for future weekly, quarterly and biyearly changes of spot freight rates. While the dynamic probit model has shown moderate predictive power, the weekly model has shown that the market has a relatively longer memory than the quarterly and biyearly models.
  • Kerdabadi, Mohsen Sadeghian; Sakaki, Abdollah; Izadi, Ahmad (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In the present study, the reliability evaluation application during design, maintenance and repair phases have been investigated for the girder of a ship’s hull. The objective of the project was to develop reliability-based methods which are to be used for the design of ship structures, in particular by the calibration of the safety factors in the design rules. In order to evaluate the structural strength, the extended model of the ultimate limit state of the hull-girder, regarding corrosion and fatigue defects, has been used based using a time-dependent probabilistic analysis. Time-dependent reliability has been evaluated using the required minimum elastic section modulus; in the case of fatigue in a ship’s deck this process has been done using mechanical fracture and the S-N curve. The results from the reliability evaluation using the Monte-Carlo simulation method and First-order reliability methods (FORM), indicated that these two methods agreed well. Analysis of the corrosion defect reliability showed a decrease of the structure’s reliability during its lifetime; hence it is possible to use the reliability criteria in the design phase in order to achieve a better perception of the structure’s operation during its lifetime with regard to environmental conditions. A comparison between the fatigue analysis results showed that the fracture mechanics method gave more conservative results compared to the S-N curve method, because of the way it considers early crack size.
  • Kobyliński, Lech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    that is fast approaching. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is the result of an enormous increase in information being acquired, stored, processed, and transmitted The effect of this has been smart domestic appliances, robots, telephones, production machines, and other objects, visible everywhere in everyday life. There are obviously many advantages to the introduction of smart vehicles and attempts to introduce smart cars into traffic are already in progress. Smart ships are also currently attracting much attention. RINA organized three international conferences on this subject in a short space of time. An attempt to send a fully autonomous experimental ship across the Atlantic is already in progress. Although technically it would be possible to already build smart ships, there are many practical problems to be solved before they could be put into operation. Apart from purely technical problems there are problems of the economy, safety, security, and environmental protection as well as legal and political problems. There are also important problems regarding employment, training, and human relations. Questions are now being asked as to whether smart ships would be fully autonomous, remote controlled, or manned with a skeleton crew, and who will ultimately be responsible for the ship in question and how smart ships will affect sea traffic. Some of these problems have been discussed in this paper.

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