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Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin,
Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie



 

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ISSN 1733-8670 (Printed)
ISSN 2392-0378 (Online)
DOI PREFIX 10.17402

The Scientific Journals (SJ) issued by the Maritime University of Szczecin (MUS) is a magazine which presents results of MUS research and educational activities. SJ has been published since 1973 but in 2004 it changed the ISSN from 0209-2069 to 1733-8670 as a result of MUS changing its name from Wyższa Szkoła Morska w Szczecinie to Akademia Morska w Szczecinie.

At the beginning there were several papers published in SJ and they were connected with maritime affairs. Doctoral and habilitation theses had also been published then. With time the SJ scope expanded to among others nautical issues, operation of the vessel, marine power plant operation. The magazine presented also symposium and conference proceedings.

Since 2008, the magazine has been published in A4 format with a new layout. Since 2010 the journal has been publishing the articles in English. By the end of 2014 a total of 112 Scientific Journals will have been published.

The SJ Scientific Board ensures high quality of published papers. All papers are reviewed confidentially and anonymously (double blind review) and are a subject of scientific edition.

The Scientific Journals printed version is primary.

http://scientific-journals.eu/

List of Issues

Recent Submissions

  • Małgorzata, Łącka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow relatively cheap and fast acquisition of high-resolution data for small areas, making it possible to produce not only an orthophoto, understood as a two-dimensional product, but also a three-dimensional point cloud, which is the basis for obtaining a digital terrain model (DTM). The use of high-resolution image and elevation data may allow accurate shoreline delineation in areas where such measurement is not possible with other methods and further use of these data, e.g. for the production of electronic navigation charts. The accuracy of the final product, the DTM, is significantly affected by the photogrammetric classification process of the point cloud and the correct separation of the ground class. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the algorithms used to classify ground in photogrammetric point clouds and obtain correct DTMs. Three algorithms were tested: Adaptive Triangulated Irregular Network, Progressive Triangulated Irregular Network, and Multiscale Curvature Classification. The study involved two test areas covering natural shorelines. Images acquired with a UAV on the X8 system and a Sony alpha camera with a mounted 15 mm wide-angle lens were used as data for the research experiment. Accuracy analysis of the developed models was performed using check points acquired by the GNSS-RTK method.
  • Vukelic, Goran; Vizentin, Goran; Hadžić, Ana Perić (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The purpose of this paper was to assess the possibility of using modern technologies, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), to study the evacuation of passengers from ships. The evacuation of passengers fromships is usually studied from post-accident reports, laboratory or field experiments, and/or numerical modelling. Nowadays, with the rapid development of computer resources and wearable technology, evacuation canalso be studied using VR or AR. The methods used in this paper for such assessments included a literaturereview (tools like Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar indexing platforms) and comparative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) analysis. The results demonstrated the great potential for the implementation of VR and AR technologies within the shipping industry, similar to how they have already foundapplications in the research of pedestrian evacuation from buildings or open spaces. Finally, recommendationsfor their use in ship passenger evacuation are presented.
  • Piotr, Szulczewski (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    During the currently ongoing development of methods for assessing the safety of ships, it is imperative that a compromise between the accuracy of the results and the accessibility of obtaining results is reached. This paper shows the calculations of a theoretical hull against damage stability regulations as included in SOLAS 2020, ICLL 66/88 as amended in 2003 and MARPOL 78. The rules included in the currently valid regulations require certain righting arm curve properties from vessels before and after potential damage, which does not pose a high difficulty level to engineers. However, for many engineers and scientists working with these rules, it is unclear what kind of behavior (particularly roll motion) these righting arm curve parameters correspond. In this paper, a correlation between the required GZ properties and the actual roll motion of a ship in waves, as calculated with the well-established method proposed by the ITTC, is revealed, and a comparison of the results to the currently in use regulations as well as comparison between the methods themselves is made. The comparison reveals the impact of GZ curve parameters on the roll motion of the ship.
  • Piotr, Korlak (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Existing and future regulations on ship energy efficiency and methods for their improvement are presented in this work. The design and operational features of gas-fuelled low-speed main engines, liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification conditions, and amount of waste cold are compared. Using a simple linear regression model based on the least squares method, formulae were developed to predict the amount of waste cold as a function of the brake power of gas-fuelled low-speed main engines operating under ISO ambient conditions in Tier III-compliant mode. A sufficiently accurate prediction of the waste cold amount at the initial design stage is feasible due to the formulae developed as part of this work.
  • Majda, Jurić; Čedomir, Dundović; Tina, Perić; Gorana, Jelić Mrčelić (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    shore terminal, or Floating Storage Regasification Unit – FSRU) was presented based on holistic evaluation of the impacts of potential LNG terminal. The first step was to divide the entire observed area of the Adriatic Sea of the Republic of Croatia into smaller areas by using the Geographic Information System (GIS), and to select areas where installation of LNG terminal is technically feasible based on the pre-elimination criteria. Potential LNG terminal areas were selected taking into account all pre-elimination criteria and 14 areas were selected by using pre-elimination criteria in GIS smart charts tool that enables analyses of spatial data. The second step was based on elimination criteria analyses of 14 areas selected in the first step by pre-elimination criteria analyses. Six potential LNG terminal micro-locations were singled out based on defined elimination criteria. The third step included experts’ evaluation of 38 specific sub-criteria classified into five distinctive groups of sub-criteria: economic group (11 sub-criteria), ecological group (13 sub-criteria), safety group (4 sub-criteria), traffic connection group (6 sub-criteria) and gas needs (4 sub-criteria) for six areas singled out in previous step. The fourth step was to make multi-criterial expert analysis of the six locations selected in the previous step (for onshore terminals, offshore terminals and FSRU) for three different scenarios analysis by the PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method of Enrichment Evaluation) method. In every scenario, one group of sub-criteria was selected as the most important according to its cumulative relationship with other groups of criteria (scenario 1 – economic group of the criteria, scenario 2 – ecological group of the criteria, scenario 3 – safety) and different importance was given to every of the sub-criteria (the sub-criteria weight). The methodology presented in this paper can also be used in decision making process for other marine and coastal activities where incorporating an ecosystem approach is an important issue taking into account safety and project costs, but the selection of pre-elimination criteria, elimination criteria and the sub-criteria should be carefully adjusted to the other situation or activities.
  • Paweł, Zalewski; Katarzyna, Posacka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduces, adopts, and implements new instruments, such as conventions, resolutions, and guidelines, to prevent and minimize the number and severity of accidents involving ships at sea. The results of international maritime safety requirements introduced in recent years are presented in this paper. The impact of these regulations on ship safety improvement in European marine waters was determined via an analysis of accidents over a seven-year period of 2014–2020. The analysis was based on the classification of accidents by their severity, by the type of ship involved, and by the identified causes or contributing factors. Evident, still existing “weak points” of maritime safety monitoring are emphasized, such as low reporting of incidents and superficial identification of contributing factors. It is worth noting that the technological development of marine electronic systems introduced both positive effects and novel threats to the safety of navigation. An example is an uncritical overreliance on technology and information provided via electronic means and sensors. In this context the usage of integrated, digitized bridge systems in contemporary maritime vessels and future remote control systems was stressed.
  • Zbigniew, Szozda; Piotr, Nowakowski (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ships' stability criterion due to turning is not up-to-date and requires amendments. Redesigning the criterion should be based on scientific research, but there is a lack of accurate procedures and formulas enabling the calculation of the heeling moment caused by centrifugal forces as a function of time. Measurements of a ships’ heel caused by turning on a model-scale or full-scale may provide a basis for such an analysis. This paper creates such a procedure, including appropriate formulas, leading to the extraction of the heeling moment caused by centrifugal force from other heeling moments acting on a ship during turning. One model-scale experiment is described in detail, and the results of the calculations are presented. The paper concludes that it is possible to extract this moment as a function of time and presents an example of such a calculation.
  • Dariusz, Milewski (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The problem presented in this article concerns the impact of demand characteristics for consumer goods on the profitability of purchasing strategy, including the choice of both the source of supply and transport technology (deliveries in containers by sea, rail, air, and road transport). To assess the profitability of applying a specific strategy, the author developed a model to conduct simulations using the Monte Carlo approach for two demand distributions (Gaussian and Gamma), various sales fluctuations, and changes in demand during the delivery time. Calculations were carried out considering the costs of transport, storage, capital costs related to maintaining stocks, and costs of lost sales. The simulation results show that the greater the fluctuations and the lower the predictability of the demand, the greater the profitability of deliveries using air transport and local deliveries. However, concrete decisions depend on knowledge of the consequences of making these decisions and whether appropriate cost accounting is used in enterprises. The results of the calculations also indicate that the strategy of outsourcing production in low-cost countries will, in many cases, become unprofitable if production costs in these countries increase even slightly.
  • Mariusz, Jedliński (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The progressive unpredictability of socio-economic or biological changes (e.g. the SARS-CoV-2/COVID 19 pandemic), the multi-directional nature of their impact, the variability of intensity, and the uncertainty in estimating potential effects hinders the stable and planned operation of modern supply chains. This irreversible situation proves the high unreliability of existing traditional measuring instruments of classical economics and the methods used so far in the field of management and quality sciences. This article aims to present an exemplary set of expectations towards contemporary supply chains that are particularly relevant to the emerging market challenges in the form of mega-trends of threats and conditions, also those particularly emphasized during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic. It is primarily a pandemic (taken as a critical exogenous factor) resulting in severe “disorders” in supply chains. The actual level of supply chain resilience depends on its inherent characteristics and is termed “vulnerabilities”, while an active supply chain response to emerging “disorders” is treated as its “resilience”. For these reasons, the author proposes a holistic view of the nature of the supply chain system and its processes. The proposed approach, based on the method of interpretative (qualitative) research enriched with the idiographic nomothetic approach, is treated as a creative alternative that does not exclude other possibilities of perception of the supply chain, but, in its intellectual diversity, complements other methods of understanding its system, processes, and logistics management. Such an approach with a dominant hypothetical-inductive The progressive unpredictability of socio-economic or biological changes (e.g. the SARS-CoV-2/COVID 19 pandemic), the multi-directional nature of their impact, the variability of intensity, and the uncertainty in estimating potential effects hinders the stable and planned operation of modern supply chains. This irreversible situation proves the high unreliability of existing traditional measuring instruments of classical economics and the methods used so far in the field of management and quality sciences. This article aims to present an exemplary set of expectations towards contemporary supply chains that are particularly relevant to the emerging market challenges in the form of mega-trends of threats and conditions, also those particularly emphasized during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic. It is primarily a pandemic (taken as a critical exogenous factor) resulting in severe “disorders” in supply chains. The actual level of supply chain resilience depends on its inherent characteristics and is termed “vulnerabilities”, while an active supply chain response to emerging “disorders” is treated as its “resilience”. For these reasons, the author proposes a holistic view of the nature of the supply chain system and its processes. The proposed approach, based on the method of interpretative (qualitative) research enriched with the idiographic nomothetic approach, is treated as a creative alternative that does not exclude other possibilities of perception of the supply chain, but, in its intellectual diversity, complements other methods of understanding its system, processes, and logistics management. Such an approach with a dominant hypothetical-inductive character allows for creating a platform for broader scientific discussions, positioning itself in the sphere of simplifying reality or creating a theoretical construct for the possibility of formulating the foundations of the preliminary theory. These considerations lead to the conclusion that such an attempt at a new, broader perspective, both at the emerging threats and vulnerability, is related to the level of risk, demonstrating that the Supply Chain Critical Functionality is a consequence of many different factors, including time, costs, and delays in deliveries. Such a view allows for a more comprehensive systematization of the epistemological layer in the area of directional perception and application of logistics, showing many similarities but also significant differences with phenomena that are characteristic of other areas of logistics application and the perception of the conditions for the functioning of modern supply chains. character allows for creating a platform for broader scientific discussions, positioning itself in the sphere of simplifying reality or creating a theoretical construct for the possibility of formulating the foundations of the preliminary theory. These considerations lead to the conclusion that such an attempt at a new, broader perspective, both at the emerging threats and vulnerability, is related to the level of risk, demonstrating that the Supply Chain Critical Functionality is a consequence of many different factors, including time, costs, and delays in deliveries. Such a view allows for a more comprehensive systematization of the epistemological layer in the area of directional perception and application of logistics, showing many similarities but also significant differences with phenomena that are characteristic of other areas of logistics application and the perception of the conditions for the functioning of modern supply chains.
  • Katarzyna, Bobkowska; Izabela, Bodus-Olkowska (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Artificial neural networks (ANN) are the most commonly used algorithms for image classification problems. An image classifier takes an image or video as input and classifies it into one of the possible categories that it was trained to identify. They are applied in various areas such as security, defense, healthcare, biology, forensics, communication, etc. There is no need to create one’s own ANN because there are several pre-trained networks already available. The aim of the SHREC projects (automatic ship recognition and identification) is to classify and identify the vessels based on images obtained from closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras. For this purpose, a dataset of vessel images was collected during 2018, 2019, and 2020 video measurement campaigns. The authors of this article used three pre-trained neural networks, GoogLeNet, AlexNet, and SqeezeNet, to examine the classification possibility and assess its quality. About 8000 vessel images were used, which were categorized into seven categories: barge, special-purpose service ships, motor yachts with a motorboat, passenger ships, sailing yachts, kayaks, and others. A comparison of the results using neural networks to classify floating inland units is presented.
  • Staude, Marek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Good quality in composite castings can be confirmed primarily by their user. The producer is obliged to create a good product that meets the user’s needs that should undergo quality control. Omission of technological procedures and improper quality control may result in various defects like porosity. This paper presents the characteristics of the casting defect, namely porosity, with a particular focus on porosity in suspension and saturated metal composites. This defect is different, specific to composite castings, making its identification very difficult. The aim of the study is to detect and describe porosity in composites with the use of microscopic and submicroscopic examinations. The assessment of the porosity of the microstructure of composite castings allowed for the formulation of the following conclusions: in addition to the porosity that occurs in castings of classic materials (cast steel, cast iron, and non-ferrous metal alloys), metal composites also distinguish between primary and secondary agglomerates, leaving the reinforcement space not filled, occluded bubbles, and separated gas bubbles.
  • Ghassemi, Mohammad A.; Ghadimi, Parviz; Sajedi, Sayyed Mahdi (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper examines the effect of the stern wedge length and height on the drag and trim of a chine-planing hull in calm water. To this end, fluid flow was simulated by Star-CCM+ software by applying an overset mesh and k-ε turbulent model. The finite volume method was used to discretize the fluid domain, and the fluid volume was utilized to capture the generated free surface. The considered model is a prismatic planing hull with a deadrise angle of 24°, a mass of 86 kg, a length (L) of 2.64 m, and a beam (B) of 0.55 m. For validation, the numerical results of drag and trim were compared against experimental data, which displayed good compliance. Subsequently, the hydrodynamic performance of the planing hull was investigated, and the wedge effect was assessed. The stern wedge was located at the bottom and near the aft perpendicular to the hull to facilitate a moderate distribution. Various wedge lengths of 0.2B, 0.5B, and B at two different heights of 5 mm and 10 mm were examined to assess the hydrodynamic performance of the hull at various speeds. The trim angle, resistance, water surface elevation, porpoising, roster tail, and the stern and bow were computed and analyzed. Based on the numerical results, it was concluded that when the wedge length increased, the drag and trim were reduced. It was also concluded that the best wedge for a vessel with desirable wake generation is one with a length of 0.2B and a height of 5 mm.

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