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  • Grzelakowski, Andrzej S. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The main subject of this research was to identify recent basic trends in the development of inland waterway transport in the EU as well as to evaluate this from both EU transport policy objectives and logistics markets’ requirements. For this purpose, classical statistical and economic analysis methods as well as the documentation research method were used. The basic threats and barriers to the development of inland waterway transport are indicated, as well as various actions necessary to limit or eliminate them. An attempt was also made to assess the opportunities and prospects for the development of this transport mode in the next decade in the context of the development of the broader EU transport market. The main objective of this research was to perform a market assessment of the development prospects of this mode of transport in the era of dynamic developing logistic customer service standards, as well as progressive globalization and the 4th industrial revolution (digitalization). In this respect, political versus market-oriented scenarios of the development of EU inland shipping were analyzed and evaluated. The conclusions relate to the ongoing and upcoming modal shift on the EU transport market as well as regulatory measures undertaken by the EU.
  • Kotowska, Izabela; Mańkowska, Marta; Pluciński, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The need to prioritize activities aimed at increasing the use of inland waterway transport to support seaports and their staging is of primary importance for ports that have natural conditions (direct access to inland routes), but do not meet the basic requirements for their development (access to high-quality inland waterway connections). Due to the cost- and time-consuming nature of many of the recommended activities, it is crucial to properly plan internal and external measures by placing them on a timeline and assigning responsibility for their implementation to various stakeholders, including port authorities and waterway managers. Revitalizing the linear waterway infrastructure of these ports will be of paramount importance.
  • Mańkowska, Marta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Transport links are one of the main factors required to develop cross-border cooperation and integration. However, differences in the quality and quantity of transport infrastructure inhibits the development of cross-border cooperation, as exemplified by the cross-border transport network in the northern part of the Polish-German borderlands, namely, the Szczecin–Berlin inland waterway. The existing differences constitute bottlenecks that restrict the use of cross-border transport links to strengthen cross-border cooperation. This article aims to assess the transport function of the Szczecin–Berlin inland waterway and identify the bottlenecks and missing links hindering its potential. The findings will serve as the basis for indicating the types of proposed measures aimed at implementing the proposals made by cargo shippers with respect to cross-border transport links identified during an in-depth interview survey. The types of measures proposed in this article will improve the competitiveness of cross-border transport links by ensuring interoperatibiliy, interconnectivity, and intermodality. However, they will require the effective coordination in policies regarding development of the transport infrastructure in the cross-border area, promotion of its development, and facilitating the cooperation between stakeholders. Measures to be taken in that regard are an important issue in cross-border governance and management.
  • Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek, Aneta; Czermański, Ernest (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Globalization poses new challenges, while also providing development opportunities for strong and dynamic enterprises and new sectors which shape the world markets and economy and contribute to a more global approach to business activities. The business activities undertaken in each country depend on a number of factors, and these factors are often similar due to globalization, though their impacts appear to vary. In addition, changes in economies progress at different speeds, thus this article aims to determine how the impact of change in the global economy influences transformations in ownership in container shipping. The organization and operation of global container shipping is shaped by numerous external factors, i.e. economic, geographical, and political factors. The impact of these factors varies depending on the specific aspect of the container shipping industry being discussed. This paper was motivated by the need to determine the container fleet size and ownership structure in container shipping, and whether these are changing as the industry evolves. The stated aim of this research requires the use of statistical methods and a literature review to allow for a comparative study of the size and ownership relations in container shipping.
  • Pluciński, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the major issues with freight carriage is choosing the ideal mode of transport. This is no different for transporting cargos in maritime trading, where the land section of the transport route may be accomplished by inland shipping, provided sufficient transport infrastructure exists. This article presents the results of a study on the demand for inland shipping to and from the seaports of Szczecin and Świnoujście. The research study was carried out in 2017 by applying demoscopic methods. Interviews were conducted with major cargo shippers involved in maritime trading based within the Oder Waterway corridor who import/export over 10,000 tonnes of cargo per year. The interviews made it possible to obtain information on the most important factors considered by individual cargo shippers while organizing their transport processes. In addition to identifying the determinants themselves and to specify their nature, the study also indicated the positive and negative consequences of each determinant on the modal shift to inland shipping. The research in this study showed that a key role was played by determinants connected with the characteristics of carried cargoes, features of a given transport mode, and financial consequences of choosing a certain transport solution. An important factor was also the characteristics of the cargo shippers declaring the demand for transport, as well as changes in the cargo structure and the directional structure of foreign trade.
  • Szymankiewicz, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The law of general average is one of the oldest institutions in maritime law, which is still applicable in contemporary shipping. Although the role and function of general average have naturally changed throughout centuries of its history (the main reasons therefor being the popularization of maritime insurance, which evolved much later than the general average) and general average has been and is subject to criticism pointing to its anachronistic nature and redundancy in today’s maritime economic realities. However practice shows that general average continues to resist these accusations and is commonly used in the practice of maritime commercial trade. This article deals with the issue of general average in light of Polish maritime law regulations, the essence and specificity of these legislative solutions concerning the safety of shipping in Poland, and also gives examples of events that occurred at sea that permit the announcement of an act of the general average. This article also presents considerations with regard to arguments in favour of maintaining the institution of general average as a legal instrument used in shipping, as well as critical voices emphasizing the need to eliminate general average as an institution of maritime law aimed at distributing losses, incurred to avoid a common peril, to the participants of a maritime adventure.
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, With issue 57 (129), I have to say goodbye to you and my role as the Editor-In-Chief of the journal. On the 1st of February 2019, the Rector entrusted me with a new mission and asked me to oversee the entire publishing house of the University as its Head and Editor-In-Chief. I would like to express my gratitude for the trust placed in me by the University’s authorities. I would also like to thank the outgoing Editor-In-Chief of MUS Press, Prof. Bernard Wiśniewski, who has devoted several decades to MUS Press. During the last four years, I have managed to successfully complete many tasks, such as gaining sponsors and external funding from the Ministry of Science, establishing a recognised and international Scientific Board for the journal, designing and implementing detailed publication procedures in accordance with COPE regulations, designing and implementing an editorial system, designing and implementing an online journal repository with complete publications, modernising and uploading content to the journal’s website, gaining numerous renowned authors from around the world and introducing the quarterly to over a dozen indexes and bibliometric databases, such as Web of Science, DOAJ and InfoBase Index. All of those activities resulted in a continuous improvement in citability and other bibliometric indicators (Chybowski, 2018). I would like to use this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Board, the reviewers and the members of the editorial team for their cooperation and their efficient completion of the tasks related to the publication process. The time I spent as Editor-In-Chief taught me a lot about successful teamwork and shaping interpersonal relations. As of the 1st of February 2019, the role of Editor-In-Chief will be assumed by Dr Robert Jasionowski – Assistant Professor at the Institute of Basic Technical Sciences of the Maritime University of Szczecin. I am very happy that the mission relating to the further improvement of the journal’s ratings has been entrusted to this ambitious man. I sincerely hope that the new Editor-In-Chief will continue my quest of introducing the quarterly to the JCR database and gaining IF points. To achieve those goals, it is crucial to attract more international authors and continuously increase the citability of the published articles. I wish the new Editor-In-Chief all success in constantly improving the ranking of the Scientific Journals in peer-reviewed journal rankings and hope that the readers will continue to enjoy reading our quarterly publication.
  • Abbasi, Alireza; Ghassemi, Hassan; Molyneux, David (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The purpose of this research was to investigate the power and thrust coefficients of a horizontal axis tidal stream turbine (HATST) with different blade geometries, including twist angles, blade numbers, and section profiles. The RANS equations and Star-CCM+ commercial software were used to numerically analyze these variables. Furthermore, the turbulence model used in this study is a Realisable k-ε turbulent model. Nine different models were defined by changing the twist angle, thickness, camber, and blade numbers. The results are presented, and the power and thrust coefficients are compared against TSR for each of the nine different models. The pressure distribution and flow velocity contour are also presented and discussed.
  • Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Hot surfaces in ship engine rooms are the risk objects that most frequently contribute to fire ignition. Thermography, especially when using thermal cameras, offers many advantages over more common infrared thermometers, but dedicated systems are often prohibitively expensive. An affordable hybrid approach was thus tested in this study, where a low-cost thermal camera smartphone was paired with a common infrared thermometer. Measurements were taken in situ during a sea voyage in an engine room under normal operating conditions, and the surfaces of the main engine, the generating set auxiliary engine, and the exhaust gas boiler were tested. Several areas were discovered to be well above the generally-accepted temperature limit of 220°C, primarily due to absent or poor insulation. Clear recommendations for remediation are made, and the proposed testing method offers fast, easy, effective, and affordable inspection.
  • Dobryakova, Larisa; Lemieszewski, Łukasz; Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Satellite navigation systems are commonly used to precisely determine the trajectory of transportation equipment. The widespread deployment of GNSS is pushing the current receiver technology to its limits due to the stringent demands for seamless, ubiquitous and secure/reliable positioning information. This fact is further aggravated by the advent of new applications where the miniaturized size, low power consumption and limited computational capabilities of user terminals pose serious risks to the implementation of even the most basic GNSS signal processing tasks. This paper has presented the advantage of Cloud-based GNSS Navigation, which facilitates the possibility of developing innovative applications where their particularities (e.g. massive processing of data, cooperation among users, security-related applications, etc.) make them suitable for implementation using Cloud-based infrastructure.
  • Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The need for accuracy, precision, and data registration in underwater positioning and navigation should be viewed as no less stringent than that which exists on the sea surface. In the same way in which GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers rely on the signals from multiple satellites to calculate a precise position, undersea vehicles discern their location by ranging to the acoustic signals originating from several fixed underwater acoustic sources using the Time-of-Arrival algorithm (ToA) through the Ordinary Least Squares method (OLS). In this article, the scope has been limited to only considering underwater positioning systems in which the navigation receiver is acoustically passive. The receiver “listens” to the buoys, receives their messages and solves the problem of finding its own position based on the geographical coordinates of the buoys. Often, such systems are called GNSS-like Underwater Positioning Systems (GNSS-like UPS). It is important to note the distinction between general purpose GNSS-like UPS (mainly civil systems) and special purpose GNSS-like UPS (mainly military systems). In this article, only general purpose GNSS-like UPS systems have been considered. Depending on the scale of system’s service areas, GNSS-like UPS are divided into global, regional, zonal and local systems. Only local GNSS-like UPS systems have been considered in this article. The spoofing of acoustic GNSS-like UPS works as follows: the acoustic GNSS signal generator transmits a simulated signal of several satellites. If the level of the simulated signal exceeds the signal strength of the real satellites, the acoustic receiver of an underwater object will “capture” the fake signal and calculate a false position based on it. All receivers that fall into the spoofing zone will calculate the same coordinates, while the receivers located in different places will have a mismatch in the XYZ coordinates.
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Gucma, Maciej; Gralak, Rafał; Bilewski, Mateusz; Muczyński, Bartosz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents a simulation method for determining the minimum safe pull of tugs assisting in port manoeuvres. The method can be used to determine the relationship between the minimum safe pull, understood as the tension on the line, of the assisting tugs and the overall length, cargo capacity or net capacity of ships manoeuvring in a given port under allowable hydrometeorological conditions. The method was verified through simulated tests of gas tankers’ entry, turning and berthing at the LNG terminal of Świnoujście
  • Gucma, Stanisław; Gucma, Maciej; Gralak, Rafał; Przywarty, Marcin; Muczyński, Bartosz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article describes the methodology to design a universal berth for LNG discharge from tankers with a wide cargo capacity range of 500 m3 to 220,000 m3. Based on a waterway optimization simulation, the methodology has been used to determine parameters of the designed universal cargo handling berth located in the port of Świnoujście.
  • Herbin, Paweł; Woźniak, Marcin (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this paper, two automatic mini-crane control systems have been compared; utilizing feedback as well as both feedback and feedforward structures. The proposed control systems were implemented in a Master-Slave system to provide intuitive control for a mini-crane by human muscles. The control systems that have been designed were tested on constructions with similar structures i.e. an upper limb exoskeleton and a mini-crane with two joints, but using different actuation systems. The mini-crane had hydraulic actuators, whereas the exoskeleton was equipped with electrical actuators.
  • Panasiuk, Katarzyna; Kyzioł, Lesław; Hajdukiewicz, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Layered composites are materials that are widely used in industry due to their low manufacturing costs. They are used, among others, as a construction material for the construction of light aircraft, cars, wind turbine blades and the hulls of vessels. The universality of their use has contributed to the formation of a large amount of post-production and post-use waste from these composites. Layered composites, using recycled polyester and glass, or recycled composite waste, may be materials that could be used in the economy. The polyester-glass waste used in the composite was created by crushing and then grinding and sieving to obtain the appropriate granulation. Materials with a waste content of 0%, 10%, 20% and with granulation of this waste of ≤ 1.2 mm were made using the hand lamination method. Test specimens were prepared from the material plates that were obtained in accordance with the PN-EN ISO 179-1: 2010E standard (Plastics – Charpy Impact Assessment – Part 1: Non-instrumental impact test). Impact tests of samples were carried out according to the above-mentioned standards using a Zwick Roell RKP450 swinging hammer. Test bench instrumentation and software enabled the bending forces to be recorded, as well as the deflection of the samples for short time intervals and displacement, so a detailed force-deflection graph could be obtained. During the analysis, the results of the research were focused on describing the kinetics of the process where the samples were destroyed (fracture mechanics), this allowed for the initial determination of the material’s resistance to dynamic loads. The results obtained showed that the increase of the recycled content in the produced composite contributed to the lowering of the destructive force threshold in the impact tests, as well as the simultaneous increase of the plasticity of the material. The increase of the sample’s deflection with the occurrence of the maximum force resulted in the energy of the elastic state being increased (Ue).

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