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Browsing by Title: 46 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin

  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, I am pleased to present the 46th issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. In this issue, the Journal focusses on the latest findings from the fields of transport engineering, marine navigation and marine technology. This issue includes articles related to the problems of transportation safety (chemical cargo carriers, LNG transportation), the latest research in the field of design and operation of marine machinery (including condition assessment of mud pumps for drillships, design of submersible autonomous vehicles and advances in maritime measuring techniques), as well as state-of-the-art solutions for maritime communication, navigation data processing and maritime positioning systems for vessels (Automatic Identification Systems, radar systems, and the Global Navigation Satellite System). We have also included a particularly interesting article entitled “On navigation as a scientific discipline” which summarizes the existing achievements in the field of navigation and describes the potential to classify navigation as an independent scientific discipline. I warmly invite authors to submit articles for consideration by the Journal and readers to send us their comments. In order to access an electronic version of the current issue and archived issues please visit http://scientific-journals.eu/.
  • Apology 
    Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Świerczyński, Sławomir; Zwolan, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article by Krzysztof Czaplewski, Sławomir Świerczyński and Piotr Zwolan entitled “Using elements of integral calculus in the process of optimizing the configuration of navigation positioning systems”3 published in the previous issue (45/2016) is an English version of the revised article by Krzysztof Czaplewski “Kryterium całkowe jako narzędzie matematyczne wspomagające proces optymalizacji wystawienia stacji systemu nawigacyjnego” 4, published in ZN AMW No. 3/2000. The authors would like to apologize for having forgotten to include this article in the reference section, which mistake was noticed after the article had been published. The authors' intention was not to conceal the previous publication, but to return to the previous studies on navigation processes optimization devised by one of the authors. The authors considered it desirable to get back to the previous results, as the problems of automatization of optimization processes are still valid in navigation and require further work. Furthermore, the subject of the article lies in the area of studies currently performed by the authors. In the context of increasingly frequent information on spoofing and jamming of satellite system signals, ground-based radio navigation systems begin to grow in significance again. For example, the contemporary mutation of the Loran system called eLoran seems to be at the time the best option supporting the operation of GNSS. The erection of new eLoran stations or other systems supporting the operation of GNSS has to be preceded by reliable optimization studies among others, and this is the reason why the authors are interested in this area of studies. We would like to apologize to anyone who felt offended by the situation. The Authors
  • Artyszuk, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a novel step forward in finding the loads of particular mooring ropes that balance the steady environmental excitations for a ship staying at berth. The industrial static equilibrium method for a rough assessment of ship mooring safety is considered to be well-established. The static loads are directly related to the rope’s MBLs (minimum breaking loads) while applying a certain safety margin (usually 50%). The problem is reduced to a set of linear equations that may be solved analytically. The generality in terms of arbitrary horizontal and vertical angles of mooring ropes is preserved. All derivations are provided to enhance trust in the very simple yet absolutely accurate and fast linear solution. The accuracy is studied both analytically, throughout all the development stages, and finally by comparison to the exact numerical solution of the original nonlinear equilibrium equations for an exemplary mooring pattern. A discussion of selected effects in load distribution is also given. Using the approach presented, for instance, we can efficiently test mooring safety when any mooring rope of the set is accidentally broken.
  • Bilewski, Mateusz; Putynkowski, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents a review of ultrasonic sensors. Attention is focused on the possibility of using such sensors to keep an unmanned aerial vehicle at a constant altitude above the surface. Such a task requires filtered and unfiltered signals, so that the ground level can be distinguished even when obstacles are present. Three selected sensors were tested. The possibility of connecting these sensors to external devices was also studied. The potential of the individual sensors and of a set of sensors is discussed. The study showed that the best solution is to use a set of three ultrasonic sensors. Alternatively, a sensor with both unfiltered and filtered measurement was proved to be an adequate option.
  • Gerigk, Mirosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The present paper begins with a presentation of an interdisciplinary research project, the method is then introduced, followed by a brief description of the unmanned autonomous maritime vehicle. The following chapter concerns a combined model describing the motion of the vehicle, including the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces. The model takes into account gravity, displacement, resistance, thrust, lift, and other hydrodynamic forces. The primary task of an advanced maritime vehicle is to precisely predict its position. To do so, an integrated model for the acquisition, analysis, and processing of the signals is necessary. The processed signals should then be used for the precise steering of the vehicle. The vehicle should be equipped with a stabilization system. Information on the integrated steering, positioning, and stabilization system of the vehicle is briefly presented in the paper. Such system enables to obtain a fully autonomous vehicle. Some information on the propulsion and underwater energy supply systems is also briefly presented. In the final part of the paper, some of the issues connected with vehicle safety are introduced.
  • Jankowski, Stefan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    There were a number of circumstances which became the basis for the MarTech liquefied natural gas (LNG) project: the forthcoming regulations reducing permitted sulphur content of a ship’s fuel, and aspirations of Poland and Lithuania to diversify sources of natural gas import by building LNG import terminals. The project was launched in 2012 and lasted more than three years until April 2015. It concerned the uses of LNG in the South Baltic Sea region and was realized by eight partners from five countries surrounding this area. The main aims were promotion of LNG as a fuel and dissemination of knowledge and experiences related to LNG. They were achieved by organizing training courses, seminars and meetings between stakeholders, research institutions and policy makers. This paper is an informal report of activities within the MarTech LNG project.
  • Jarząbek, Dorota; Juszkiewicz, Wiesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Computer simulations used for predicting the behavior of oil spills at sea allow optimizing the deployment of oil spill response personnel and resources, and using the backtracking method to identify the polluter in cases where spills are sighted some time after they occurred. Predicting the direction and speed of oil slick spreading is of fundamental importance. An attempt was made to verify the influence of selected simulation parameters, related to hydrometeorological conditions, on the behavior of the resulting oil pollution. Different responses were obtained under the same simulated weather conditions, depending on the type of spilled oil. The experiment was conducted on a PISCES II oil spill simulator.
  • Mironiuk, Waldemar (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    According to some authors it is estimated that around 80% of accidents at sea are caused by human and organizational errors (HOE). In order to gain knowledge of phenomena that occur during ship operations, a decision was made to design and build a test site for carrying out model-based investigations of ships, including in situations of hazard to buoyancy. The model-based investigations are used as the basic and universal method for forecasting ship dynamic properties. The results of initial research on the dynamic impact of air flow on an 888 project type ship model are presented in the elaboration. The research has been executed at a test stand located in the Polish Naval Academy. The experimental results have been compared with theoretical calculations for angle of dynamic heel. Input parameters for the tests and calculations have been defined in accordance with recommendations of the Polish Register of Shipping (PRS) and International Maritime Organization (IMO) (IMO Instruments).
  • Piasecki, Tomasz; Bejger, Artur; Kozak, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article examines the differences in the lifetime of mud pumps, which are part of the equipment on (ultra) deep-water drillships, depending on the strategy of maintenance. The authors conducted research on mud pumps to create an efficient diagnostic tool to help pumps operators on daily maintenance routines. We have created drilling process diagrams, one pertaining to the operation of mud pumps for which maintenance is carried out without technical supervision, the other including diagnostic maintenance. The diagrams show differences pump failure frequency.
  • Wójcik, Anna; Banaś, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the factors affecting a ship’s safety during its voyage is the ability to detect encounter situations. Navigators mostly use two parameters: closest point of approach (CPA) and time to CPA (TCPA). Their limit values, considered as safe, depend on the parameters of the vessel, geographic area, and weather conditions. These limits are set by the navigator and are based on his experience; however, in specific situations, there is a need to use other parameters, such as ship domain. It is very important for the automated communication system to determine the critical moment when intership communication should be started. The article presents an algorithm of automatic detection of situations where the communication should be initiated. The influence of data relating to the vessel, geographic area, and weather conditions can be taken into account. The output produced by the program, based on the authors’ algorithm, is presented.
  • Bergmann, Michael (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The current systems supporting navigation on board of ships are built on the classic concept for equipment: the system is developed, tested, type approved and installed; and from that time on it is used with no or little modifications. The systems are using data, but the data streams do not influence the system behavior. Looking at other industries, a regime of software and system maintenance has been established which allows more rapid updates. System development in the IT arena is moving towards a more modular approach, encapsulating individual components to ease the implementation and delivery of updates with a limited system-wide impact. This key concept is lately often referred to as the “app-concept”. In addition, more and more systems are using data to adjust system behavior to support a situational centric approach for decision support. The e-Navigation development asks for exactly that: a way to improve innovation, while ensuring system stability for the navigational components used by the navigator on the bridge, and a concept to increase situational awareness. A key aspect of the success of new systems will be the ability to convert data into information as needed in any given situation, creating the necessary knowledge for intelligent decision making and increasing the competence of a navigator. The paper will focus on the following topics: the classic monolithic equipment paradigm; modern system architecture, using components and app-concepts; advantages of using data streams to enable situational driven tool enhancements; and the app-concepts supporting the situational centric information presentation.
  • Dakus, Daniel; Zacniewski, Artur (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the implementation of an Internet application that graphically depicts the current situation at sea, with the prospect of being used in maritime applications and the possibility to work on multiple hardware platforms. Modern techniques have been applied in order to allow permanent development of the application and ensure that it is maintenance-free and self-reliant, even in case of unexpected situations. This publication covers the procedure followed to build the application as well as its field and method of operation. Possible usages of the application and tests carried out on many platforms have been presented. Ideas for further development have also been introduced.
  • Dyjak, Michał; Gucma, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents a method of obtaining relative and global coordinates using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Four GNSS antennas have been compared in this research. The GNSS antennas have been utilized by the Veripos and Septentrio Systems. Global Positioning System (GPS) pseudorange observations are used to obtain relative position of the GPS antennas. Relative positions are based on calculations made by the RTKLIB software. Lever arm range and bearing are used to assess accuracy of the true antenna location relative to the vessel Navigation Reference Point (NRP). The article deals with the problem of assessing the quality of real-time positioning equipment. Comparing results of the raw position calculation with the physical measurements shows the usefulness of the real – time position monitoring.
  • Galor, Wiesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A number of factors affect the safety of navigation, the collision of two ships being one of them. In ship encounter situations, certain principles of behaviour set forth by regulations are in force. Traditionally, a navigational situation is evaluated by identifying the closest point of approach for the passing ships and by comparing it with the assumed safe distance. Then it is necessary to use technical aids: radar and Arpa (depending on the regulations). In Arpa, navigational situation information is mainly presented in the form of vectors. The other presentation that can be used in an encounter situation is the predicted point of collision (PPC). This is the point or points toward which one’s own ship should steer at her present speed (assuming that the target does not manoeuvre) in order for a collision to occur. This paper presents original results of a study into the assessment of ship encounter situations based on PPC. The methods (analytical and graphical) of PPC as a set of circles are elaborated and an analysis of a ship encounter situation performed.
  • Juszkiewicz, Wiesław; Nowy, Agnieszka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One consideration required in the resolution concerning radar and automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA) equipment is the possibility of an automatic drift calculation being realized in the base of fixed target tracking. This information is very important to providing safe navigation, especially in restricted areas. This paper presents an analysis of the present regulations contained in IMO resolutions and the results of an experiment conducted in the ARPA simulator. The aim of the simulations was to verify the reliability of the information presented on the ARPA display and to determine the accuracy of the automatic drift calculation implemented in the simulator.

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