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  • Dembińska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
  • Dembińska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
  • Ciosmak, Małgorzata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article concerns the issue of the long-term operation of hydromechanical fittings during their contact with aggressive water. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the significance of the quality of water during the operation of wind power farms and geothermal power stations, especially hydromechanical fittings during long-term operation at the base of the Baltic Sea and geothermal power stations. This article presents the properties of water and their impact on hydromechanical equipment during long-term operation in marine and geothermal waters. The paper includes the analysis and evaluation of their impact. Additionally, the article describes important problems with the operation of wind power farms and geothermal power stations. The results of periodical analyses of southern Baltic marine water and thermal groundwater from “Geotermia Podhalańska” were evaluated and used as the basis for future research. Every negative parameter of water, known as its aggressiveness, adversely affects the basic materials of wind masts and pipelines, as well as the hydromechanical equipment in contact with marine and thermal water. The presented results show the necessity of controlling the water quality prior to the operation of geothermal water and building wind power masts in coastal marine water. Attention was paid to corrosion during contact with aggressive water with unprotected materials. This issue is rarely seen in the literature but is very important.
  • Łącka, Małgorzata; Łubczonek, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The shoreline is an important geographical zone, and knowledge of its accurate location can be crucial for coastal management and mapping. The ever-increasing number of aerial and satellite sensors is leading to research related to the development of new methods for the automatic extraction of the shoreline. Currently, there is a lot of research in this area with different research methodologies. In this paper, an analysis of shoreline extraction methods was carried out. Based on the analysis undertaken, current research processes in this field can be verified. This enabled the further evaluation of the research methodologies studied, including the identification of basic assessment elements for shoreline extraction accuracy. Practical aspects of this work include the ability to establish the correct methods to assess the accuracy of extracted shorelines for both research and production processes related to data extracted from remotely sensed images.
  • Marzantowicz, Łukasz; Nowicka, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of the article is to designate catalogues of typological disruption as an inherent element of supply chain management in the light of uncertainty conditions. By means of deduction, the typological characteristics of the disruption and the catalogue of management decisions were determined. In this way, the scope of theoretical knowledge based on the theory of risk and supply chain management was expanded by leading the discourse towards the location of the so-called the required uncertainty in the canon of obligatory components of management strategies. The article presents an overview discourse leading to the conclusion that contemporary supply chain management requires at least an attempt to forecast the effects of uncertainty conditions, including the risk of disruption.
  • Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek, Aneta; Czermański, Ernest; Kowalik, Jakub (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Maritime and coastal areas are the lifeblood of many countries, being essential to their well-being. They provide trade routes, regulate the climate, and supply both organic and inorganic resources, along with energy, a crucial requirement for living and recreation. However, there are emerging disparities and barriers in terms of marine exploitation. On the one hand, existing and evolving technologies and knowledge allow better utilization of the sea, while on the other hand, the cumulative effect of human activity leads to conflicts of interest and to a deterioration of the marine environment. This article aims to consider the impact of changes in the world economy on the evolution of the fishing fleet, including the characteristics of vessels produced in consecutive years. We also attempt to determine the most common type of vessel presently operating in the world fleet. A number of external factors impact the organization and operation of the world’s fishing fleet, including economic, geographical, and political factors. The strength of each factor varies depending on the conditions in which the fleet operates. Also, we would also like to establish to what extent efforts aimed at energy demand reduction have affected the characteristics of the current fleet, determining the scale and direction of change, while also identifying any relevant constraints and limitations. The intention behind this paper is to discover the size and structure of the fishing fleet and whether it is changing as a result of environmental transformation. With this objective in mind, we have outlined a review of the literature and used statistical methods in order to carry out a comparative analysis of the size and structure of the world’s fishing fleet.
  • Pędziwiatr, Kamil; Sosik-Filipiak, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of the article is to indicate the best practices used to limit individual transport in selected European cities. Due to the dynamically progressing urbanization processes and the related development of cities, the demand for transport services is increasing. Individual transport has become a significant problem, which contributes to the increase in road traffic in urban transport networks, causing congestion, which determines the increase in air pollution and noise emissions, road accidents and affects the health and quality of life of residents by limiting their mobility and transport accessibility . More and more often local authorities decide to implement traffic restrictions in cities, thus contributing to reducing the negative effects of transport. The methods of source analysis, descriptive analysis and the method of deduction were used to carry out the analysis. As indicated by the conducted analysis, the constant search for new solutions contributing to the reduction of transport problems is a challenge for city managers in the era of rapidly advancing urbanization processes. The implemented transport policy and the pace of implementing changes seem to be a key aspect in discouraging the society from using individual road vehicles in the city.
  • Jacek, Łubczonek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies are becoming increasingly common, with ever-expanding applications. Low-altitude imaging makes it possible to quickly acquire high-resolution data for various objects, especially for mapping. This paper presents the mapping of a bridge and its notice marks, lights, and span to produce electronic navigation charts for inland navigation. The research object was the Clowy Bridge on the Regalica River in Szczecin, Poland. In order to carry out the research, two photogrammetric flights were made, and three sets of photos were created, from which orthophotos were developed. The research included the analysis of the orthophoto generation process, as well as quantitative and qualitative analyses. The results of the research demonstrated the possibility of using this type of data for mapping bridges to create electronic navigation maps for inland navigation.
  • Małgorzata, Łącka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow relatively cheap and fast acquisition of high-resolution data for small areas, making it possible to produce not only an orthophoto, understood as a two-dimensional product, but also a three-dimensional point cloud, which is the basis for obtaining a digital terrain model (DTM). The use of high-resolution image and elevation data may allow accurate shoreline delineation in areas where such measurement is not possible with other methods and further use of these data, e.g. for the production of electronic navigation charts. The accuracy of the final product, the DTM, is significantly affected by the photogrammetric classification process of the point cloud and the correct separation of the ground class. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the algorithms used to classify ground in photogrammetric point clouds and obtain correct DTMs. Three algorithms were tested: Adaptive Triangulated Irregular Network, Progressive Triangulated Irregular Network, and Multiscale Curvature Classification. The study involved two test areas covering natural shorelines. Images acquired with a UAV on the X8 system and a Sony alpha camera with a mounted 15 mm wide-angle lens were used as data for the research experiment. Accuracy analysis of the developed models was performed using check points acquired by the GNSS-RTK method.
  • Vukelic, Goran; Vizentin, Goran; Hadžić, Ana Perić (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The purpose of this paper was to assess the possibility of using modern technologies, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), to study the evacuation of passengers from ships. The evacuation of passengers fromships is usually studied from post-accident reports, laboratory or field experiments, and/or numerical modelling. Nowadays, with the rapid development of computer resources and wearable technology, evacuation canalso be studied using VR or AR. The methods used in this paper for such assessments included a literaturereview (tools like Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar indexing platforms) and comparative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) analysis. The results demonstrated the great potential for the implementation of VR and AR technologies within the shipping industry, similar to how they have already foundapplications in the research of pedestrian evacuation from buildings or open spaces. Finally, recommendationsfor their use in ship passenger evacuation are presented.
  • Piotr, Szulczewski (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    During the currently ongoing development of methods for assessing the safety of ships, it is imperative that a compromise between the accuracy of the results and the accessibility of obtaining results is reached. This paper shows the calculations of a theoretical hull against damage stability regulations as included in SOLAS 2020, ICLL 66/88 as amended in 2003 and MARPOL 78. The rules included in the currently valid regulations require certain righting arm curve properties from vessels before and after potential damage, which does not pose a high difficulty level to engineers. However, for many engineers and scientists working with these rules, it is unclear what kind of behavior (particularly roll motion) these righting arm curve parameters correspond. In this paper, a correlation between the required GZ properties and the actual roll motion of a ship in waves, as calculated with the well-established method proposed by the ITTC, is revealed, and a comparison of the results to the currently in use regulations as well as comparison between the methods themselves is made. The comparison reveals the impact of GZ curve parameters on the roll motion of the ship.
  • Piotr, Korlak (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Existing and future regulations on ship energy efficiency and methods for their improvement are presented in this work. The design and operational features of gas-fuelled low-speed main engines, liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification conditions, and amount of waste cold are compared. Using a simple linear regression model based on the least squares method, formulae were developed to predict the amount of waste cold as a function of the brake power of gas-fuelled low-speed main engines operating under ISO ambient conditions in Tier III-compliant mode. A sufficiently accurate prediction of the waste cold amount at the initial design stage is feasible due to the formulae developed as part of this work.
  • Majda, Jurić; Čedomir, Dundović; Tina, Perić; Gorana, Jelić Mrčelić (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    shore terminal, or Floating Storage Regasification Unit – FSRU) was presented based on holistic evaluation of the impacts of potential LNG terminal. The first step was to divide the entire observed area of the Adriatic Sea of the Republic of Croatia into smaller areas by using the Geographic Information System (GIS), and to select areas where installation of LNG terminal is technically feasible based on the pre-elimination criteria. Potential LNG terminal areas were selected taking into account all pre-elimination criteria and 14 areas were selected by using pre-elimination criteria in GIS smart charts tool that enables analyses of spatial data. The second step was based on elimination criteria analyses of 14 areas selected in the first step by pre-elimination criteria analyses. Six potential LNG terminal micro-locations were singled out based on defined elimination criteria. The third step included experts’ evaluation of 38 specific sub-criteria classified into five distinctive groups of sub-criteria: economic group (11 sub-criteria), ecological group (13 sub-criteria), safety group (4 sub-criteria), traffic connection group (6 sub-criteria) and gas needs (4 sub-criteria) for six areas singled out in previous step. The fourth step was to make multi-criterial expert analysis of the six locations selected in the previous step (for onshore terminals, offshore terminals and FSRU) for three different scenarios analysis by the PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method of Enrichment Evaluation) method. In every scenario, one group of sub-criteria was selected as the most important according to its cumulative relationship with other groups of criteria (scenario 1 – economic group of the criteria, scenario 2 – ecological group of the criteria, scenario 3 – safety) and different importance was given to every of the sub-criteria (the sub-criteria weight). The methodology presented in this paper can also be used in decision making process for other marine and coastal activities where incorporating an ecosystem approach is an important issue taking into account safety and project costs, but the selection of pre-elimination criteria, elimination criteria and the sub-criteria should be carefully adjusted to the other situation or activities.
  • Paweł, Zalewski; Katarzyna, Posacka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduces, adopts, and implements new instruments, such as conventions, resolutions, and guidelines, to prevent and minimize the number and severity of accidents involving ships at sea. The results of international maritime safety requirements introduced in recent years are presented in this paper. The impact of these regulations on ship safety improvement in European marine waters was determined via an analysis of accidents over a seven-year period of 2014–2020. The analysis was based on the classification of accidents by their severity, by the type of ship involved, and by the identified causes or contributing factors. Evident, still existing “weak points” of maritime safety monitoring are emphasized, such as low reporting of incidents and superficial identification of contributing factors. It is worth noting that the technological development of marine electronic systems introduced both positive effects and novel threats to the safety of navigation. An example is an uncritical overreliance on technology and information provided via electronic means and sensors. In this context the usage of integrated, digitized bridge systems in contemporary maritime vessels and future remote control systems was stressed.
  • Zbigniew, Szozda; Piotr, Nowakowski (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ships' stability criterion due to turning is not up-to-date and requires amendments. Redesigning the criterion should be based on scientific research, but there is a lack of accurate procedures and formulas enabling the calculation of the heeling moment caused by centrifugal forces as a function of time. Measurements of a ships’ heel caused by turning on a model-scale or full-scale may provide a basis for such an analysis. This paper creates such a procedure, including appropriate formulas, leading to the extraction of the heeling moment caused by centrifugal force from other heeling moments acting on a ship during turning. One model-scale experiment is described in detail, and the results of the calculations are presented. The paper concludes that it is possible to extract this moment as a function of time and presents an example of such a calculation.

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