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  • Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, In the opening words of this edition 58(130) I would like to thank all the readers for their growing interest in our journal. As editor-in-chief, I am pleased that there are new authors who want to publish their research in the pages of our quarterly, which includes articles in three major thematic categories: Navigation & Maritime Transport, Transportation Engineering, and Marine Technology & Innovation. The subject matter of the published papers will likely be expanded in the future, especially considering that the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin were submitted for evaluation by advisory teams appointed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in three disciplines: civil engineering and transport; mechanical engineering; environmental engineering, mining, and power engineering. Expanding the subject matter of the papers published in the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin will further improve the position of our journal at the national and international levels. I would like to announce to our readers that the quarterly Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin (in accordance with decision No. 583/P-DUN/2019 dated 21 May 2019) has obtained co-financing for 2019–2020 from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland funds allocated for activities promoting science, including translation and proofreading. In this issue of Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, the results of fourteen research papers are presented in four sections: Marine Technology and Innovation, Navigation and Maritime Transport, Transport Engineering, and Miscellaneous. The first section, Marine Engineering & Innovation, contains four articles, the first of which presents a method to classify inland waterway ships based on images from a waterway monitoring system. The second article describes an innovative solution for automatic positioning using a visual system. In the third article, an experimental study on the hydrodynamic resistance of stepped planning hulls under different geometrical and physical conditions is presented. In the fourth article, the accuracy of defining the energy efficiency of drive systems is demonstrated by comparing hydrostatic drives using proportional engine speed control as an example. In the second section, Navigation and Maritime Transport, there are three articles. In the first article, a methods which accurately map the shoreline in Inland Navigational Charts using photogrammetric and sonar images is presented. The next article is devoted to analytical method to determine VHF marine communication bands. The last article in this section contains a research article describing the impact of temperature on the duration of the navigation season on the Oder border from 2004 to 2018. The third section, Transport Engineering, contains six articles. The authors of these articles describe the importance of inland waterway transportation in maritime and land transport systems and present the 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 58 (130) current state and trends in the progressive development of inland waterway transport (infrastructure, means of transport, and impact of social media). Section four, Miscellaneous, contains one article which is dedicated to the overall average in Polish maritime law. Readers are invited to visit our web page http://scientific-journals.eu/, where they may find information about the article publication process, as well as full texts of articles from the current issue 58(130) and works published in previous issues of Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin.
  • Bobkowska, Katarzyna; Wawrzyniak, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents an analysis of the possibilities of using image processing methods for feature extraction that allows kNN classification based on a ship’s image delivered from an on-water video surveillance system. The subject of the analysis is the Hough transform which enables the detection of straight lines in an image. The recognized straight lines and the information about them serve as features in the classification process. Above all, this approach allows ships to be recognized, which can then be characterized by a specific representation and shape. Recreational units that are often seen on inland waters were classified correctly using this method. Each analyzed camera image was previously prepared – brought to the form where the ship was visible from the side and the background removed (they were monochromatic – white). The results obtained in this work will allow for the development of the final ship classification method based on camera images. This method is a significant part of the emerging system prototype, which is implemented as part of the Automatic Ship Recognition and Identification (SHREC) project.
  • Grudziński, Marek; Marchewka, Łukasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The modern manufacturing or transportation machines that are used in industrial processes require continuous supervision in certain circumstances and even manual control by a human. Despite the fact the machines are more and more reliable and accurate than they used to be there is still the need for manual and time-consuming programming and safety control, especially when the external conditions change. For the operation of large machines, where the risk of damage and even disaster exists, an additional supervisory system based on vision devices could be utilized. The vision systems are commonly used in a range of simple 2D detection as well as very precise 3D reconstruction. The stereovision systems could be applied for unusual operations, especially in terms of safety and collision avoidance, such as crane observations while transporting a heavy load, robot and CNC machine preparation and normal operation. Through the use of optical devices the observed objects could be quickly positioned. In this research a test bench for stereovision reconstruction for the example of a robotic arm has been presented. The calibration procedures have been explained and accuracy tests in a large measuring volume were performed. Finally the possibilities of the applications and the utilization of such a system have been assessed.
  • Najafi, Amin; Nowruzi, Hashem; Salari, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Hamid (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this paper, the hydrodynamic resistance of one-step planing craft has been experimentally investigated under different geometrical and physical conditions. For this to be accomplished, a Fridsma body model with different deadrise angles was considered. Moreover, the effect of the longitudinal distance of the step from the transom and the step height on the hydrodynamic resistance of a stepped planing craft has been evaluated at different hull velocities. According to the experimental results, frictional resistance can be enhanced by decreasing the height of the step. However, a greater total resistance can be obtained by increasing the longitudinal distance of the step from the transom. Moreover, it was found that the proportionality of the longitudinal distance of the step from the transom to the step height has a remarkable effect on the hydrodynamic efficiency of the step in stepped planing craft.
  • Skorek, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of the article is to look at the possibility of accurately determining the energy efficiency of drive systems. The results of experimentally determined efficiencies and the efficiencies determined from simulations of two hydrostatic systems with throttling control and fed by a constant capacity pump were compared. The research apparatus was very precisely designed, made and automated. The measuring instruments that were used are characterized by their high measuring accuracy. The issues related to the determination of the energy losses and the energy efficiency of the hydraulic motor or drive system, which should be determined as dependent on the physical quantities independent of these losses, were also discussed. A Paszota diagram of the power increase in the direction opposite to the direction of the power flow, replacing the Sankey diagram of the power decrease in the direction of the power flow in the hydraulic motor or in the drive system, was analyzed. The results showed that a Paszota diagram opens up a new perspective on research on the power of energy losses and energy efficiency of hydraulic motors and drive systems.
  • Łubczonek, Jacek; Łącka, Małgorzata; Zaniewicz, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Shoreline mapping is one of the key stages in navigational charting. In terms of navigation, the shoreline marks the boundary of a river, which is often equivalent to the navigable water area. In cartographic terms, it is an important topological element between different objects that are adjacent to it. Currently, topographic objects are often mapped using photogrammetric materials obtained from various altitudes – satellite, airborne or low, which is associated with the use of an airborne UAV. Depending on the type of materials, the shoreline can be obtained in vector form with differing situational accuracy and differing degree of detail. In addition to the standard methods of processing vector data, the research in this paper also included the use of sonar images, enabling the detection of the shoreline with the use of a surveying hydrographic unit. On the basis of the collected photogrammetric and sonar images of different spatial resolution, an analysis of the accuracy of shoreline mapping was performed in terms of the situational accuracy and the level of detail in its representation. The results of the research provided the basis for the determination of dedicated remote sensing materials enabling the development of maps for inland navigation.
  • Mąka, Marcin; Majzner, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents an analytical method for determining marine VHF communication bands based on the propagation model included in the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendations. The developed method to determine communication bands was compared with the model recommended by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The usefulness of the method developed by the authors has been demonstrated for the needs of the Radiocommunication Events Management System (REMS).
  • Skupień, Emilia; Tubis, Agnieszka; Bačkalić, Todor (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the impact of the weather on inland navigation conditions. Each mode of transportation depends on the weather, but inland navigation is the one most affected by it. Inland navigation is strongly dependent on the water level in a river bed, which is a result of weather conditions. In Poland the depth of inland waterways is relatively low, but the biggest consideration is the weather which results in the variability of this level. The variability of hydrotechnical conditions results in problems with planning for transportation. It is widely known that water is one of the most important factors in the hydrotechnical conditions of inland navigation and it is directly correlated with the weather. In this paper the authors present the impact of temperature on the duration of the navigation season on the Border Oder, based on research conducted in the years from 2004 to 2018 and the authors also investigated important changes in the weather conditions during last few years. The results showed that the number of navigable days has dropped significantly over the investigated period as a result of changes in the climate.
  • Dziechciarz, Mateusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Entrepreneurs in the transport and forwarding services field are looking for new areas of activity to ensure a competitive advantage over their competitors. Currently, with relatively balanced price levels and service quality, the acquisition and retention of clients can ensure success in the market and marketing activities. The approach to marketing activities has changed over the years. Currently, marketing 2.0 is used, which is focused on the customer, their needs, and preferences. Marketing 3.0 is also used, which introduces a broader customer perspective. The area of activity, which is part of the new marketing 3.0 concept, is social media, currently used by over one billion people globally. Such a large group means a regular flow of information which is highly important for businesses. Research has shown that companies use social media primarily for promotion, to recruit new employees, and contact contractors. Internet tools are the most widely used distribution channel of services in the industry. Over half of the surveyed enterprises indicated that they planned to increase social media in their company’s marketing activities. A positive trend may indicate that transport and forwarding companies may plan to increase their future use of this channel for marketing activities.
  • Grzelakowski, Andrzej S. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The main subject of this research was to identify recent basic trends in the development of inland waterway transport in the EU as well as to evaluate this from both EU transport policy objectives and logistics markets’ requirements. For this purpose, classical statistical and economic analysis methods as well as the documentation research method were used. The basic threats and barriers to the development of inland waterway transport are indicated, as well as various actions necessary to limit or eliminate them. An attempt was also made to assess the opportunities and prospects for the development of this transport mode in the next decade in the context of the development of the broader EU transport market. The main objective of this research was to perform a market assessment of the development prospects of this mode of transport in the era of dynamic developing logistic customer service standards, as well as progressive globalization and the 4th industrial revolution (digitalization). In this respect, political versus market-oriented scenarios of the development of EU inland shipping were analyzed and evaluated. The conclusions relate to the ongoing and upcoming modal shift on the EU transport market as well as regulatory measures undertaken by the EU.
  • Kotowska, Izabela; Mańkowska, Marta; Pluciński, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The need to prioritize activities aimed at increasing the use of inland waterway transport to support seaports and their staging is of primary importance for ports that have natural conditions (direct access to inland routes), but do not meet the basic requirements for their development (access to high-quality inland waterway connections). Due to the cost- and time-consuming nature of many of the recommended activities, it is crucial to properly plan internal and external measures by placing them on a timeline and assigning responsibility for their implementation to various stakeholders, including port authorities and waterway managers. Revitalizing the linear waterway infrastructure of these ports will be of paramount importance.
  • Mańkowska, Marta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Transport links are one of the main factors required to develop cross-border cooperation and integration. However, differences in the quality and quantity of transport infrastructure inhibits the development of cross-border cooperation, as exemplified by the cross-border transport network in the northern part of the Polish-German borderlands, namely, the Szczecin–Berlin inland waterway. The existing differences constitute bottlenecks that restrict the use of cross-border transport links to strengthen cross-border cooperation. This article aims to assess the transport function of the Szczecin–Berlin inland waterway and identify the bottlenecks and missing links hindering its potential. The findings will serve as the basis for indicating the types of proposed measures aimed at implementing the proposals made by cargo shippers with respect to cross-border transport links identified during an in-depth interview survey. The types of measures proposed in this article will improve the competitiveness of cross-border transport links by ensuring interoperatibiliy, interconnectivity, and intermodality. However, they will require the effective coordination in policies regarding development of the transport infrastructure in the cross-border area, promotion of its development, and facilitating the cooperation between stakeholders. Measures to be taken in that regard are an important issue in cross-border governance and management.
  • Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek, Aneta; Czermański, Ernest (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Globalization poses new challenges, while also providing development opportunities for strong and dynamic enterprises and new sectors which shape the world markets and economy and contribute to a more global approach to business activities. The business activities undertaken in each country depend on a number of factors, and these factors are often similar due to globalization, though their impacts appear to vary. In addition, changes in economies progress at different speeds, thus this article aims to determine how the impact of change in the global economy influences transformations in ownership in container shipping. The organization and operation of global container shipping is shaped by numerous external factors, i.e. economic, geographical, and political factors. The impact of these factors varies depending on the specific aspect of the container shipping industry being discussed. This paper was motivated by the need to determine the container fleet size and ownership structure in container shipping, and whether these are changing as the industry evolves. The stated aim of this research requires the use of statistical methods and a literature review to allow for a comparative study of the size and ownership relations in container shipping.
  • Pluciński, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the major issues with freight carriage is choosing the ideal mode of transport. This is no different for transporting cargos in maritime trading, where the land section of the transport route may be accomplished by inland shipping, provided sufficient transport infrastructure exists. This article presents the results of a study on the demand for inland shipping to and from the seaports of Szczecin and Świnoujście. The research study was carried out in 2017 by applying demoscopic methods. Interviews were conducted with major cargo shippers involved in maritime trading based within the Oder Waterway corridor who import/export over 10,000 tonnes of cargo per year. The interviews made it possible to obtain information on the most important factors considered by individual cargo shippers while organizing their transport processes. In addition to identifying the determinants themselves and to specify their nature, the study also indicated the positive and negative consequences of each determinant on the modal shift to inland shipping. The research in this study showed that a key role was played by determinants connected with the characteristics of carried cargoes, features of a given transport mode, and financial consequences of choosing a certain transport solution. An important factor was also the characteristics of the cargo shippers declaring the demand for transport, as well as changes in the cargo structure and the directional structure of foreign trade.
  • Szymankiewicz, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The law of general average is one of the oldest institutions in maritime law, which is still applicable in contemporary shipping. Although the role and function of general average have naturally changed throughout centuries of its history (the main reasons therefor being the popularization of maritime insurance, which evolved much later than the general average) and general average has been and is subject to criticism pointing to its anachronistic nature and redundancy in today’s maritime economic realities. However practice shows that general average continues to resist these accusations and is commonly used in the practice of maritime commercial trade. This article deals with the issue of general average in light of Polish maritime law regulations, the essence and specificity of these legislative solutions concerning the safety of shipping in Poland, and also gives examples of events that occurred at sea that permit the announcement of an act of the general average. This article also presents considerations with regard to arguments in favour of maintaining the institution of general average as a legal instrument used in shipping, as well as critical voices emphasizing the need to eliminate general average as an institution of maritime law aimed at distributing losses, incurred to avoid a common peril, to the participants of a maritime adventure.

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